Rapid: Summary of Research and Supporting Scientific Evidence

Lucid Rapid is a computerised screening test for dyslexia suitable for ages 4 to 15 years, comprising three dyslexia-sensitive tests:  (i) phonological processing, (ii) auditory-sequential memory, and (iii) phonic decoding (age 8-15) or visual-verbal integration memory (age 4-7).  In order to provide satisfactory screening accuracy across such a wide age range, the format of each test changes with age and the item content of the test is more challenging for older students. 

As with all of Lucid’s products, the tests in Lucid Rapid were produced in accordance with the highest international test development standards, including procedures for item creation and refinement, and psychometric validation.  Lucid Rapid was developed by selecting suitable screening measures from two of Lucid’s existing products range: Lucid CoPS, a suite of cognitive tests designed for the early identification of dyslexia in children aged 4 to 8 years, and LASS, a suite of literacy and cognitive tests designed for the identification of dyslexia across the age range 8 to 15 years.

The tests selected from Lucid CoPS were those shown to be the most effective predictors of dyslexia in a large-scale five-year prospective longitudinal study carried out at the University of Hull.  The results of this research work, which validates the CoPS tests used in Lucid Rapid, were reported in the international peer-reviewed research publication Journal of Research in Reading in 2000.   For further details of this work and the scientific rationale behind it, see Lucid Fact Sheet 43 or Section 1.2 of the Lucid CoPS Teacher’s Manual.  The tests selected from LASS were those shown to be the most effective predictors of dyslexia in validation studies carried out by Dr Joanna Horne of the Psychology Department, University of Hull.  The results indicated significant correlations between the tests and the comparison measures, demonstrating concurrent validity of the tests, and comparison of dyslexic and non-dyslexic groups confirmed the predictive validity of the tests.  For further details of this research work, which validates the LASS tests used in Lucid Rapid see Section 1.4 of the LASS 8-11 Teacher’s Manual and Section 2.2.2 of the LASS 11-15 Teacher’s Manual   The findings of both the Lucid CoPS and LASS studies fit well with established scientific knowledge on dyslexia – i.e. that dyslexic students are comparatively poor on measures of literacy, phonological skills and auditory memory and these weaknesses are not due to low intelligence.  The accuracy of a screening test is largely determined by the frequency of false positive and false negative cases it produces.  In this context, ‘false positives’ are those cases predicted by the test to have dyslexia that actually did not have the condition.  ‘False negatives’ are those who were not predicted to have dyslexia that turned out to have dyslexia.  The data from both the Lucid CoPS and LASS validity studies showed that the tests gave very low levels of false positives and false negatives as predictors of literacy difficulties and dyslexia.

Over 40 research publications by academics and educationalists attest to the validity and useful application of the component CoPS and LASS tests used in Lucid Rapid (see the separate research pages for those products).  In addition, there are reports on the effectiveness of Lucid Rapid, including  an independent study carried out by researchers in Singapore, who found that children identified by Lucid Rapid as having a high probability of dyslexia were significantly more likely to be diagnosed as dyslexic by educational psychologists.  The results of this research work, which provides further validation of Lucid Rapid, were reported in the international peer-reviewed research publication Educational and Child Psychology in 2011.  Professional testimonials on the use and value of Lucid Rapid can also be found on the Lucid website.  In addition Lucid's programs were quoted as an example of good practice in the House of Commons Education and Skills Committee Special Educational Needs ReportThird Report of Session 2005-2006 Volume 2, Oral and written evidence EV 100, 101, 114 and 115. 

Fact Sheet 11 contains a more extensive list of scientific publications that relate to the development of the Lucid programs.